• Survey of recent sanitation achievement in Himachal Pradesh -Authored By : Deepak Sanan, Pradeep Chauhan ,Vinod Rana

    1444649912dc5866c87dThis report of a study commissioned by the Institute of Development Studies on the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) site presents the findings of the survey that was conducted in Himachal Pradesh to assess the progress made by the state in rural sanitation, in the context of the sanitation revolution, which is said to have occurred in the state of Himachal Pradesh in the last few years. Himachal Pradesh has a population of about 6.9 million and is over 90% rural. It has a relatively good record on human development indicators and access to public services. However, it showed a dismal awareness on the sanitation front till a few years ago.For example, in 2004, household toilet coverage in rural areas of Himachal Pradesh was estimated at about 28%. In early 2005, the Government of Himachal Pradesh adopted a new strategy to secure better rural sanitation results, which included: Introduction of a holistic concept of sanitation A demand oriented, outcome based approach To generate awareness of a ‘need’ for sanitation amongst people individually and as a community Involvement and ownership of the community Shift from individual subsidies to community incentives Local bodies undertake responsibility for sustainable delivery of services Identify appropriate institutional arrangements for delivery of services and relevant capacity support including partnership with NGOs/ CBOs and address interdepartmental co-ordination Emphasize monitoring and evaluation to determine success and outcomes The new strategy was very different from the earlier approach in that it stopped disbursing subsidies for toilet construction by below poverty line families and treated this as a local community responsibility. Communities were given rewards for becoming open defecation free by undertaking collective action that included taking care of the needs of the poor and marginalised members of the community. Regular trainings and follow up in techniques used in community led total sanitation (CLTS) were organised by the state government. By September, 2010, the state reported that over 90% of rural households had their own toilet. By September 2010, 520 GPs had won the award and another 2272 claimed to be ODF. However, these achievements had not been evaluated independently. This study presents the results of a survey conducted to assess the outcomes of these initiatives in rural sanitation in the past few years. The survey aimed at finding/exploring: The extent of toilet coverage (for households, migrant labour, schools, anganwadi centres and public places) in each category The extent of behaviour change with respect to the practice of open defecation The status of solid waste and liquid waste management The survey revealed that toilet coverage among rural households in the state was 87%, which represented a 46% increase as compared to five years ago. In the case of schools, the coverage was 98% with the five year increase placed at 36%. The results for anganwadis were 75% coverage with a 29% increase over five years and for toilets in public places was 85% with the increase over five years pegged at 26%. Community perception of the extent to which open defecation was practiced by rural households was about 12%, compared to a figure of 58% five years ago. Among NGP winners, the perception of the extent to which open defecation continued was 2% from 45%. Among ODF GPs, this figure was 9% against 60% five years ago and amongst the other GPs the figures were 37% now and 70% five years ago. However, solid and liquid waste management practices did not reflect the significant change seen with respect to reduction of open defecation and toilet usage. The survey revealed that behaviour change did not yet fully encompass the concept of creating an open — read more on this link http://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/survey-recent-sanitation-achievement-himachal-pradesh-study-institute-development-studies more

  • Effectiveness of a rural sanitation programme on diarrhoea, soil-transmitted helminth infection, and child malnutrition in Odisha, India: a cluster-randomised trial

    1441282132aec18cb1afA 3ie-funded impact evaluation research team used a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the government’s Total Sanitation Campaign in Odisha, India to see if latrine coverage did indeed reduce exposure to disease. more

  • Note fromUNICEF NY Evaluation Office on 3 evaluations of CLTS/SLTS conducted in Mali


    Three different studies conducted in Mali have found ODF status to be sustained after 3 years in both communities and schools. These findings from Mali suggests that sustainability of ODF status also depends on the quality of program conception and field implementation. more

  • Timor-Leste: Report of the Hands-on training workshop on CLTS, 23rd – 28th March , 2015

    14339183630a10e1a05eCLTS Foundation facilitated a five-day hands-on training workshop on CLTS at Maliana, Bobonaro, Timor-Leste. more

  • Lessons in Urban Community Led Total Sanitation from Nakuru, Kenya

    1431322273e4217bb29eCommunity Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative methodology for mobilising communities to completely eliminate open defecation (OD). It has been applied in many rural areas in countries across the developing world. However, experience in urban settings has been limited. Practical Action and Umande Trust have implemented a project Realising Rights to Total Sanitation in two low income settlements in the city of Nakuru, Kenya, adapting the CLTS methodology to meet the challenges of the urban context. This has involved devising a triggering exercise with landlords as well as tenants and using theatre to attract and sustain interest during community triggering. Working in an urban area has required considerable attention to designing, through a participatory process, low cost toilets that meet urban public health and building regulations. more

  • Hargeisa, Somaliland: Report of the Hands-On Training of Master Trainers

    14313221438b51eb0d00UNICEF Somalia has, since late 2012, led sanitation initiatives in Somalia using the CLTS approach to end open defecation and improve access to sanitation and hygiene, particularly in rural settings. UNICEF has been playing a pivotal role in supporting capacity building efforts for both partner organizations and government officials in the country. This training of Master Trainers Workshop in Hargeisa is a continuation of these efforts to strengthen capacity building of key resource people to effectively implement and monitor CLTS initiatives in Somalia. more

  • CLTS Hand Book in English Version

    137369570915ca29e2edThe CLTS approach originates from Kamal Kar’s evaluation of WaterAid Bangladesh and their local partner organisation – VERC’s (Village Education Resource Centre is a local NGO) traditional water and sanitation programme and his subsequent work in Bangladesh in late 1999 and into 2000. This led to the discovery of the CLTS approach in which use of PRA methods enables local communities to analyse their sanitation conditions and collectively internalize the terrible impact of OD on public health and on the entire neighborhood environment. (See APPENDIX A Page 76) for details. When triggered systematically and combined with ‘no-hardware subsidy’ policy and a hands-off approach by the facilitator, CLTS could provoke urgent collective local action to become totally ODF. A new style of facilitation has evolved. In its classic form, this uses the crude local word for “shit” and encourages local communities to visit the dirtiest and filthiest areas in the neighborhood. Appraising and analyzing their practices shocks, disgusts and shames people. This style is provocative and fun, and is hands-off in leaving decisions and action to the community. more

  • CLTS Hand Book Spanish version

    136800375369fc6bdcd8 La elaboración de este manual ha contado con el apoyo de Plan Internacional (Reino Unido). Se agradece a Rose Nierras por el ánimo, la paciencia y comprensión que nos dio durante gran parte del tiempo de preparación. También a Sameer Sah por su apoyo, y a Alex Betti y otros en las últimas etapas. Hay que dar gracias a Judith Robertson por la calidad del diseño y a Petra Bongartz por apoyar y ayudar en las últimas etapas de preparación del manuscrito. Peter Feldman hizo observaciones y sugerencias perceptivas que dieron lugar a mejoras adicionales. Los datos para muchos de los cuadros que dan ejemplos de casos han sido proporcionados por las personas nombradas. more

  • Community Led Total Sanitation in China

    13680037127ddaec5c85On invitation from Plan China I visited Xi‘an, capital of Shaanxi province and the working programme areas of Plan in Puchang county from 11th to 19th December 2005. The main purpose of the visit was to study the feasibility of CLTS in China and to conduct the first orientation cum training workshop on Community Led Total Sanitation. Plan, China decided to introduce CLTS approach in their programme last year (2005) and arranged a study visit for the programme staff to Bangladesh during March/April of 2005. After the exposure visit to CLTS villages in Bangladesh, Plan China decided to train and expose the front line staff of all the four PUs and especially the staff from the WES programme on CLTS approach.

  • CLTS in China

    1368003654aad24fe625CLTS was first introduced in China in 2004 by Dr. Kamal Kar in Shaanxi province, which was organised by Plan International,China in their office in Xi’an . For various reasons the practice of CLTS remained within the operational area of Plan and did not spread or take off in China.In early 2012 Ms Archana Patkar and Ms Carolien Van Der Voorden of WSSCC, Geneva visited China and had discussions with the government of China and UNICEF on various aspects of sanitation and the prospect of initiating GSF programme in the country . At that time UNICEF and the offici als from the Ministry of Health expressed their interest on CLTS approach. Ms. Patkar then suggested the government and UNICEF to arrange an exposure visit to any country in the region where CLTS is being implemented successfully.