CLTS Foundation in Mozambique

CLTS Foundation support to Mozambique: scaling up for an ODF nation by 2025

CLTS Foundation has been invited by the Government of Mozambique, in partnership with UNICEF to hold high-level institutional triggering in Maputo and its provinces between 12th to 26th April 2018. The team headed by Dr Kamal Kar will conduct policy level discussions with key functionaries including ministers, administrators and development professionals to speed up efforts towards ODF Mozambique.

Training of Trainers in Zambezia Province (16th to 20th April 2018)

Day 3 & 4 of the Workshop (18th & 19th April 2018) – The triggering days 

Essential factors for triggering are to have a good strategy and good teamwork. Everyone should have a distinct role and be clear about what they need to do. The morning of Day 3 of the training was spent in groups making triggering plans, then – as a learning exercise – helping each other to identify gaps in these in plenary.

No triggering ever goes exactly the same. This means having flexibility and a bank of skills, and a strategy to deal with challenges. All villages will have some kinds of particular challenges – and the villages identified for this training – zones of Zalala, Mucori and Mussangane – are no exceptions. All of these villages, arranged along Mozambique’s long coastline, have sandy soil, making building durable pits more complex. Zalala is built on the sandy hinterland of the beach, only a few hundred meters from the sea. In addition, it is relatively common practice in parts of Zambezia to defecate in the open, but then to cover the shit with earth or ash – Mucori and Mussangane village members use this practice. This means that triggering groups had to be ready to adapt their triggering tools: push for the community to think about what happens to covered shit when it rains, or when cattle/humans step or walk on it; identify and pull forward local technicians who have ideas about what can be done to stop pits collapsing in sandy soils.

On days 3 and 4 of the training, all participants had an opportunity to try out the triggering process for themselves, reflect on the first experience in detail, and then improve on the first attempt with another triggering in a different village. All the triggering exercises were successful in that at least a few individuals committed to starting to make a latrine immediately. However, there was a lot to learn from, in terms of team roles, getting organised, handling big groups of community members, keeping people engaged in the issue, looking for that ‘ignition’ moment, and always refraining from falling into ‘teaching’ mode.

Day 2 of the Workshop (17th April 2018)

Six new participants joined the training today. The government’s format for CLTS implementation currently is to contract private suppliers (companies) to implement in specified areas. To ensure that skills among these suppliers are robust and that they are also able to train new entrants, the CLTS team had requested that a number of these implementers from Zambezia, working at District and sub-district levels, be included in the training.

Learning for the day included live enactments of triggering tools, interspersed with video examples from the CLTS foundation archive. Tools covered included village mapping including for emergency defecation; calculations of shit; the walk of shame; and the food – water – shit tools. Part B of triggering – the ignition moment, making the ODF plan, the children’s procession, and bringing forward potential natural leaders and community consultants were also discussed.

The afternoon brought visits from representatives from the villages to be triggered tomorrow, to do pre-triggering work: discussing the logistics of the visit and starting to build a relationship. Armed with the tools, the CLTS philosophy and principles, plus basic information about the villages to be triggered, participants were then able to begin developing their specific strategies for each location. With nearly everything now set up for the triggering experience, we look forward to a busy and fruitful day tomorrow.

Day 1 of the Workshop (16th April 2018)

The Workshop began with a welcome address by the Provincial head of Public Works, Mr Graciano Artur; Provincial coordinator of UNICEF, Michael Muianga; and Rustina Sumbane; National Ministry of Public Works. There are 31 participants carefully selected to represent different levels of work at National, Provincial and District levels, and for their potential to become excellent CLTS trainers and champions. They come from departments of Education, Health and Public Works as well as from some NGOs and work in 6 of Mozambique’s 11 Provinces: Zambezia, Nampula, Niassa, Manica, Tete, and Maputo (city and Province). Participants have the full range of difference in exposure to and understanding of CLTS: at least 11 are ‘beginners’; about 9 have some theoretical knowledge of CLTS and want to know more about actual implementation; around 7 have good experience as implementers of the whole process from pre-triggering to sustained ODF. We look forward to bringing these people together to learn from each other, learn new skills, and form the backbone of CLTS experience to support scaling-up.


1st & 2nd day in Zambezia Province (13th & 15th April 2018)

In order to scale-up CLTS, commitment and buy-in is necessary at the highest levels, but also across all levels of the government machinery, down to the Province and District levels. The second and third days of this assignment were focused on the final planning of the strategy concerning the upper-middle levels. First, fine-tuning a high-level advocacy meeting and institutional triggering, to be held next week, involving National Directors and technical staff from the Ministries of Health, Education and Public Works. Second, after overnight travel to Quelimane, the administrative Capital of Zambezia Province, the team met with the senior Provincial government officials: Mr Graciano Artur, Provincial Head of Public Works; Mr Aldo Mussasa, Provincial Head of Education; and Mr Oscar, Provincial Head of Health.

In Zambezia Province, 72% of the population defecate in the open, the highest level of all Mozambique’s 10 Provinces. While this presents a challenge, along with some strategic and organisational challenge that became clear, the team hopes to be able to deliver a successful Training of Trainers starting on 16th April, Monday – which will establish skills for igniting an ODF movement in Zambezia and beyond.

First day in Maputo (12th April 2018)

The CLTS Foundation team met with officials and leaders in the Department Direcção Nacional de Abastecimento de Água e Saneamento (DNAAS – Department of Water Supply and Sanitation), UNICEF and DFID to strategies for a successful mission. The aim for the mission is to lay the groundwork for – and free up blockages to – fast-tracking sanitation work over the coming years. In rural areas of Mozambique, currently 47% of the population – or around 9 million people – still defecate in the open. This leaves a lot of scope for improvement in terms of access and usage of sanitation. This mission is also serving as a good practice for successful outcomes in some areas to be draw from and utilize its potential for scaling up. Today’s meetings set out to fine tune the agenda for a 5-day Training of Trainers, to be held between 16th-20th April, which will bring Province officials, District level officials, partner staff and academics together to establish strong capacity and skills for taking CLTS implementation forward. The day ended with a meeting with the National Director of DNAAS, Mr. Nilton Trindade, to plan for a high level meeting scheduled at the end of the assignment which will trigger Ministers from a number of Ministries with responsibilities in sanitation – and seek commitments from them to work in coordination to help CLTS flourish at scale.


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